Tooth sensitivity — also known as dentine hypersensitivity — affects the tooth via exposed root surfaces. This occurs when the enamel that protects the teeth wears away, or when gum recession occurs, exposing the underlying surface, the dentine, thus, reducing the protection the enamel and gums provide to the tooth and root.
If hot, cold, sweet or very acidic foods and drinks, breathing in cold air, or touching the affected surface makes your teeth or a tooth sensitive, then you may have dentine hypersensitivity. Tooth sensitivity can come and go over time.
There are many causes of tooth sensitivity, including:
Worn tooth enamel from using a hard toothbrush or brushing too aggressively
Tooth erosion due to highly acidic foods and beverages
Tooth erosion due to bulimia or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD)
Gum recession that leaves your root surface exposed
Proper oral hygiene is the key to preventing gums from receding and causing sensitive-tooth pain. If you brush your teeth incorrectly, or over-brush, your teeth may become sensitive. Ask your dentist if you have any questions about your daily oral hygiene routine.
Brushing properly twice daily for 2 minutes with a soft toothbrush with a toothpaste that does not have high levels of abrasives, and flossing once a day, can help reduce the chance of tooth sensitivity. A diet low in acidic foods and drinks also helps prevent tooth sensitivity.
In addition to recommending a soft toothbrush and a toothpaste without high levels of abrasives, your dentist may suggest an arginine and calcium toothpaste or a fluoride rinse, or a high fluoride level toothpaste specially formulated to make your teeth less sensitive and provide extra protection against decay. Other treatments — such as fluoride varnishes — can be painted onto the teeth to provide added protection.
There are several conditions which can cause pain, but which are not tooth sensitivity:
A cracked or chipped tooth
Leakage around restorations